This time I want to share again on the various theories of human creation. This time I found there are four different theories ... .. ie:
1. The theory of abiogenesis
2. Theory of biogenesis
3. Chemical Evolution Theory
4. Theory of Evolutionary Biology
Well, no longer following lengthy description of the theories above ...
Characters theory of abiogenesis was Aristotle (384-322 BC). He is a philosopher and prominent ancient Greek science. Abiogenesis theory states that living beings who first inhabited the earth from dead matter.
Actually Aristotle knew that if the fish eggs will hatch into fish of the same nature as its parent. The eggs are the result of marriage of the parent-parent fish. However, Aristotle believes that there are fish that come from the mud.
How does the formation of such creatures? According pengzanut understand abiogenesis, that living thing just happened or spontaneously. Therefore, understanding or theory of abiogenesis is referred to also understand spontaneae generation.
So, if understanding abiogenesis and spontaneous generation we combine, mak opinion it is understood that the first living things on earth from inanimate objects / no life terkjadinya spontaneously, for example:
a. fish and frogs came from mud.
b. Worms from the ground, and
c. Maggots come from rotting flesh.
Abiogenesis survive long enough to understand, that since Ancient Greece (Hundreds of Years BC) until the mid-17th century.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
In the mid-17th century, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered a simple microscope that can be used to observe the strange objects contained a very small drop of water immersion on straw. By the supporters of abiogenesis, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's observations it seemed to strengthen their opinion
Although it has survived for hundreds of years, not everyone understands justify abiogenesis. Those who doubt the truth of understanding abiogenesis has continued to conduct research to solve the problem of the origin of life. People who are dissatisfied with the view of abiogenesis, among others, Francesco Redi (Italian, 1626-1799) and Lazzaro Spallanzani (Italian, 1729-1799), and Louis Pasteur (French, 1822-1895). Beredasarkan research results from these figures, finally understand abiogenesis / spontaneous generation became faded because it can not be accounted understand the truth.
a) Experiment Francesco Redi (1626-1697)
To answer his doubts to understand abiogenesis, Francesco Redi experiment. In three experiments using materials Redi Cut off meat and three jars. More Redi experiment is as follows:
• Jars I: filled with a piece of meat, covered tightly.
• Jars II: filled with a piece of flesh, and allowed to remain open.
• Jars III: condition with a piece of flesh, allowed to remain open.
Furthermore, the three jars are placed in a safe place. After several days, the situation in the three jars of meat were observed.
Danhasilnya as follows:
• Jars I: The meat is rotten and the meat was not found larvae / larvae or maggots of flies.
• Jars II: meat looks rotten and in it found a lot of fly larvae or maggots.
Based on the results of those experiments, Francesco Redi concluded that the larvae or maggots are found in rotten meat in jars II and III is not formed from decaying meat, but came from fly eggs that are left on the meat when the fly landed there. This will be clearer, if the circumstances of the jar to see II, which covered gauze. On the gauze lid found more maggots, but maggots on rotting flesh relatively little.
b) trial Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799)
Like Francesco Redi, Spallanzani also doubted the truth of abiogeensis understand. Therefore, he held that in principle the same experiment with trial Francesco Redi, Spallanzani's experiment a step further but perfect.
For materials experiments, Spallanzani use broth or water stew of meat and two pumpkins. The ones that do Spallanzani experiment more are as follows:
• Pumpkin I: filled with 70 cc of broth, then heated 15oC for several minutes and allowed to remain open.
• Pumpkin II: filled with 70 cc of broth, sealed with a cork. At the meeting between the cork with liquid paraffin smeared mouth pumpkin to the meeting properly. Furthermore, dipanaskan.selanjutnay pumpkin, pumpkin I and II cooled. Once cool they are placed in an open place that is free from interference of animals and people. After approximately one week, held observation of the state of broth on the second flask.
The results of the experiments are as follows:
• Pumpkin I: broth undergo changes, namely increasing the water becomes turbid and the smell became uncomfortable. After investigation it turns out the broth at the gourd I. These contain many microbes.
• Pumpkin II: pumpkin broth is not changed, meaning remains clear as before, the smell is also fixed and does not contain microbes. However, if the pumpkin is left open longer, it also contains many microbes, the water is changed to be more cloudy and smells bad (rotten).
Based on the results of those experiments, Lazzaro Spallanzani concluded that the microbes present in the broth did not originate from the broth (inanimate objects), but from life in the air. Thus, the decay due to microbial contamination has occurred darimudara into the broth.
Supporters of abiogenesis raised objections against the results of these experiments Lazzaro Spallanzani. M, ccording to them for the formation of microbes (living) in the broth needed air. With the influence of the air there was spontaneous generation.
c) The experiments of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
In answer to his doubts to understand abiogenesis. Pasteur carry out experiments to refine the experiment Lazzaro Spallanzani. In percobaanya, Pasteur use materials with a pumpkin broth. These steps complete the Pasteur experiments are as follows:
• Step I: pumpkin condition 70 cc of broth, then sealed with a cork. Gap between the cork with a pumpkin mouth smeared with liquid paraffin. After that the cork is mounted swan neck-shaped glass tube. Then, the flask is heated or sterilized.
• Step II: Next flask cooled and placed in a safe place. After several days, the state of the broth was observed. It turns out that tetep clear broth and contains no microorganisms.
• Step III: pumpkin, broth in it remains clear until the broth is tilted surface flow inside the pipe to come into contact with air. After the pumpkins are put back in a safe place for several days. Then the state of broth was observed again. It turns out in a pumpkin broth meanjadi rotten and contains many microorganisms.
Through heating of the device percobaanya, all microorganisms present in the broth will die. In addition, another result of heating is the formation of water vapor on the swan neck shaped glass pipe. If the experiment is cooled, then water will condense on the pipe and close the hole in the pipe right at the neck-shaped part. This will cause the inhibition of microorganisms that haunt the air to get into a pumpkin. This is what causes the water remains crystal clear broth in the flask before.
At the time prior to heating, air-free stay in touch with the room in a pumpkin. Microorganisms that go along with the air to die at the time of heating the broth.
Once the gourd is tilted until the broth until kepern \ found a pipe, the broth will be in contact with air. Here there was contamination of microorganisms. When the gourd is returned to positions of the original (upright), the microorganism was carried inside. So, after some time left for some pumpkin broth into akeruh, due to the decay by mikrooranisme. Thus the evident lack of understanding truth abiogenesis or spontaneous generation, yangmenyatakan that living things from dead matter that occurs spontaneously.
Based on the results of an experiment Redi, Spallanzani, and Pasteur, then tumbanglah understand abiogenesis, and comes the understanding / new theory about the origin of living beings known as the theory of biogenesis. The theory states:
a. vivum omne ex ovo = every makkhluk life comes from eggs.
b. Omne ova ex vivo = each egg came from living things, and
c. Omne vivum ex vivo = every living creature comes from previous life.
Although Louis Pasteur in his experiments had succeeded in overthrowing understand abiogenesis or spontaneous generation and biogenesis understood at once confirmed, does not mean that the problem of how the formation of the first living things unanswered.
Besides the theory of abiogenesis and biogenesis, there are still a few more theories about the origin of life developed pleh some scientists, are as follows:
a. The theory of distinctive creations, which states that life was created by a supernatural agent (unseen) at the special.
b. Kosmozoan theory, which states that life on this planet come from anywhere.
c. Chemical Evolution theory, which claims that life in this world arise under the laws of Chemical Physics.
d. Steady State theory, argues that life did not originate the proposal.
CHEMICAL EVOLUTION THEORY
Dissatisfaction with the scientists about what the figures put forward the theory of abiogenesis and biogenesis encourage other scientists to continue to conduct research on the origin of life. Between experts include:
Harold Urey, Stanley Miller, and A. I. Oparin. they suggest that the organism was first formed on earth in the form of single-celled creatures. Furthermore, these creatures have evolved into many different types of living creatures such as Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Mollusca, and others.
Experts biology, astronomy, and geology agreed, that the planet Earth was formed roughly between 4.5 to 5 billion years ago. The situation at the moment the situation is very different denagn at this time. At that time the temperature of the planet is estimated to 4,000-8.000oC. at the start of cooling, carbon compounds and metallic elements abeberapa condenses to form the core of the earth, while the surface remains dry, barren, and not flat. Due to volcanic activity, the Earth's surface is still soft and wrinkled as it moves continuously. When it cools, the earth's crust appears folded and broken.
At that time, the condition of the earth's atmosphere is also different denagn current conditions. Light gases such as hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Helium (He) and Argon (Ar) off leaving earth gravity akrena unable manahannya. He also formed the atmosphere senaywa-simple compounds containing these elements, such as water vapor (H2O), Ammonia (NH3), Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Simple compound remains in the form of steam and restrained layer of the atmosphere. Ketuika atmospheric temperature of about 100oC to pass down the rain water to a boil. This event lasted for thousands of years. In these circumstances must have inhabited the earth at that time of life. However, such conditions allowed the course of chemical reactions, because teredianya substance (matter) and abundant energy.
The question arises, how the process of life on earth? Pwertanyaan is prompting some scientists to express their opinions and conduct experiments. Among these scientists, among others, Harold Urey and Stanley Miller.
A) Evolution of Chemistry According to Harold Urey (1893)
Harold Urey was an American Chemical experts. He stated that at some point the earth's atmosphere is rich in molecular substances such as methane (CH4), water vapor (H2O), Ammonia (NH 2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) which are all shaped steam. Because of the influence of radiation energy and electricity kiosmis lightning reaction occurs between these substances produce substances of life. Chemistry of the theory of evolution is commonly known as the Urey Urey's theory.
According to Urey, living substance which was first formed has a structure resembling a virus today. The substance of life for millions of years have evolved into different types of living beings. According to Urey, the formation of living things from a variety of molecules of substances in the atmosphere is supported under the following conditions:
a) condition 1: the availability of the molecules of methane, ammonia, water vapor, and hydrogen are very much in the earth's atmosphere
b) condition 2: the existence of energy aid the flow of electricity arising from lightning and cosmic ray radiation which causes the substances are substances that react to form larger molecules,
c) condition 3: the formation of living matter most kimianay secerhana that arrangement can be likened to the chemical composition of the virus, and
d) condition 4: in the long term (millions of years), a substance formed idup had grown into seejnis organisms (living things more complex).
B) Experiment Stanley Miller
Miller was a student of Harold Urey who was also attracted to the problem of the origin of life. Based information about the current state of the initial formation of the planet Earth, which is about the state of the temperature, the gases contained in the atmosphere of that time, he designed a simple laboratory model of a tool that can be used to prove the hypothesis of Harold Urey.
Into the creation of tools, Miller to enter the gas Hydrogen, Methane, Ammonia, and Water. The tool juaga heated during the week, so that these gases can be mixed therein. In lieu of lightning electric energy flow, the Miller flow through the device by stepping high-voltage electricity. The existence of high-voltage electric current causes the gases in Miller's device reacts to form a new substance. Also carried into the cooling device, so that gases can condense reaction products.
At the end of the week, the results of the examination of water being stored in a trap moisture analyzed secar cosmography. It turned out that the water contains simple organic compounds, such as amino acids, adenine, and simple sugars such as ribose. Miller's experiment was tried several other experts, but the result is the same. Bial experimental device is inserted in the phosphate compound, found the substances produced containing ATP, which is a compound related to the transfer of energy in life. Cpenelitian other institutions, the research produces nucleotide compounds.
Nucleotides are the main constituent of a compound of AND (Deoksiribose Nucleic Acid) and ARN (Ribose Nucleic Acid), which is typical senaywa in the cell nucleus that controls the activity of cells and heredity.
Miller's experiment can memberiakn indication that the units of the complex within living systems such as lipids, Carbohydrates, Amino Acids, Proteins, Mukleotida and others can be formed in abiotic conditions. The theory continues to repeatedly tested this widely accepted by scientists. However, until now the main problem of the origin of life remains a secret of nature that remains unanswered. The results prove that they knew before the formation of organic compounds in stages, ie starting from bereaksinya diatmosfer primordial gases with the electrical energy of lightning. Selanjutnay all these compounds react to form more complex compounds and confined to its exterior. Akhirnay form a compound which is a component of the cell.
Is a Russian scientist Alexander Oparin. In his book The Origin of Life (The Origin of Life). Oparin stated that when the Earth's atmosphere paad a compound rich in water vapor, CO2, CH4, NH3, and hydrogen. Because of the energy radiation of celestial bodies are very kaut, such as ultraviolet rays, allowing the compounds to form simple organic compounds or a more complex hydrocarbon compounds. The reaction process takes place its exterior.
Complex compounds are expected to initially form compound aseperti Alcohol (H2H5OH), and compounds of the simplest amino acid. Over millions of years, these simple compounds react membenrtk more complex compounds, Glycerin, Organic Acids, Purine and Pyrimidine. Complex compound is a cell-forming material.
According to Oparin complex compounds are very abundant on the surface of its exterior and the mainland. The existence of an abundance of energy, such as ultraviolet rays, in a very long period of time allows the oceans become a heap of organic compounds which are primordial soup or Primordial Soup.
Complex compounds which accumulate to form primordial soup in the oceans is further developed so that it has the ability and the following properties:
A. have some sort of membrane that can separate the complex bonds formed by organic molecules that are around him;
B. have the ability to absorb and remove molekil-molecules to and from the surroundings;
C. have the ability to use molecules that are absorbed in accordance denagn bonding patterns therein;
D. have the ability to separate the parts of his bonds. Such capabilities are by experts considered the ability to breed the first time.
Complex compounds with the properties of the alleged life first formed. So complex compound which is an outgrowth of the ancient soup has the properties of life such as nutrition, excretion, capable mengadan metabolism, and the possession of the ability to multiply or reproduction.
Despite the presence of simple compounds as well as an abundance of energy so that its exterior abundant organic compound that is more complex, but Oparin difficult to explain the mechanisms of transformation of protein molecules as nonliving abenda kebenda life. How organic compounds primordial soup may have the ability as mentioned above? Oparin explained as follows:
Proteins as compounds that are Zwittwer Ion, hydrophilic colloids can form a complex (absorbs water), so the protein molecules are wrapped by water molecules. Clumps of complex compounds can be separated from the liquid where it is located and form the emulsion. Penggabunagn structure this will produce a colloidal emulsion which terpiah from the liquid phase and form a clot or Koaservat timbuna.
Heaps Koaservat rich variety of complex organic substances allows the exchange with the environment. In addition to selectively lump Koaservat the focus of other compounds, especially Crystalloid thereto. Clumps of colloid composition depends on the composition mediumnay. Denagndemikian, differences in the composition of the medium will cause variations in the composition of the primordial soup. Variations in the composition of the primordial soup in various areas will lead to the formation of the chemical composition Koaservat which is a provider of raw material for biochemical processes.
The next phase of the substance in Koaservat forming enzymes. All around the border between the alignment with its environment Koaservat molecules of lipids and proteins, forming a primitive cell membranes. The formation of this primitive cell membranes allows to give stability to the koaservat. Thus, cooperation between these molecules that have been there before that can replicate themselves into koaservat and setting up re-wrapped Koaservat lipids may be mnghasilkan very primitive cell.
Koaservat ability to absorb substances from the medium allows increasing the size koaservat. Possible further allows the formation of Heterotropik organisms capable of replicating themselves and get food from Primordial soup is rich in organic substances.
The theory of biological evolution is widely accepted by scientists paar. However, not a few scientists who dispute about random molecular interactions that could be the beginning of the formation of living organisms.
The theory of chemical evolution and the theory of biological evolution many supporters, but a new theory of chemical evolution that has been proved experimentally, whereas the theory of biological evolution has not been anyone to test experimentally.
If what these two theories is correct, but have not been able to explain how and where the life of this planet Earth first emerged. The thing to remember is that life is not just a matter replikas; (doubling itself) or the problem of biological life, but also a matter of spiritual life. On the theory of the origin of life that states the organism was first formed its exterior can be understood in terms of biology, because organic molecules which is the primordial soup were stacked at sea.